Furthermore, several Indian states are themselves ethnically, religiously, and linguistically diverse. Get your answers by asking now. The need to study the relations between the GULAG system and the local indigenous groups is justified by two case studies dedicated to the Vepsians and the Tver’ Karelians. Karnataka is home to the Tulu and Kannada people; and Assam includes the Assamese, Bodo, and Karbi people. Dr Elena Katz reminded the audience of the practice of indicating ethnicity in Soviet passports; the practice was abolished in the 1990s bringing about mixed effects in relation to the representatives of various ethnic groups. [42][43] Eventually, disputes within Ireland over the terms of Irish home rule led to the partition of the island:[46] The Irish Free State received dominion status in 1922, while Northern Ireland remained part of the UK. The treaty would have turned the Soviet Union into a much looser federation, but its signing was interrupted by the August Coup—an attempted coup d'état against Gorbachev by hardline Communist Party members of the government and the KGB, who sought to reverse Gorbachev's reforms and reassert the central government's control over the republics. Join Yahoo Answers and get 100 points today. [3], According to Neil MacGregor, Director of the British Museum, the Cyrus Cylinder written by Cyrus the Great, the founder of the Persian Empire, was "the first attempt we know about running a society, a state with different nationalities and faiths—a new kind of statecraft. While the Tatars, Bashkirs, and the Chuvash are three predominantly Muslim minorities. This allowed him to get a way out to the Baltic Sea and conquer several nations. Many Asian countries recognise multiple ethnic groups: Afghanistan has no ethnic majority, although the Pashtuns are estimated to account for over 45% of the population. Retrieved 13 Present-day examples of multinational states are Afghanistan, Belgium, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Canada, China, Ethiopia, France, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritius, Montenegro, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Serbia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States. Typical multinational states include India, Indonesia, Russia, Iran, Vietnam, China. The CIA World Factbook (2011) describes Spain's ethnic makeup as a "composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types", instead of the usual breakdown of ethnic composition. They have different epics, different heroes, and different episodes. The discussion after the film touched upon the role of the background noise and the soundtrack in the documentary (Dudeck, Bowring, Kravets) as well as the sense of fear felt everywhere in the city (Kravets, Fishman). and provided detailed historical background for the recent Ingush protests touching upon the confrontation between the two ethnonational projects in the North Caucasus, those of the Ingushs and of the Chechens. After going through a number of legal aspects of the definition and status of the peoples in question, the speaker focused on the cases where the interests of the indigenous people living in the lands rich in natural resources got in conflict with the interests of resource companies; in these resource conflicts, the companies normally position themselves as representing the interests of the whole country. Russia is now the largest multinational state with 39 nationalities, which most are eager for independence. In the past, this has led to conflict. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada voted in favor of Government Business No. Punjabis are the largest language group, but at 45 percent of the population, they do not make up an absolute majority. The paper provided historical background for the situation in the republic in respect of ethnic groups and relations among them, and talked about the current trends in the republic with the emphasis on its exceptionally complex interrelation between ethnic identity and power hierarchy. [17] Common grievances of these movements include the idea that Punjabis dominate Pakistan politically and economically, thus marginalizing other groups, and that the establishment of Urdu as the country's sole official language is a form of cultural imperialism that ignores the heritage of Pakistan's diverse peoples. A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations or states. Through those councils, members of national minorities can exercise their rights in the spheres of culture, education, information, and the official use of their own languages and scripts. His presentation entitled The Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation: the legal status, history, challenges and tendencies of development provided an overview of the state policy in respect of the 40 indigenous groups in question that inhabit 2/3 of the current territory of the Russian Federation, starting with the 1920s and up to the present day. [22] The country's political divisions were created by the Dayton Agreement, which recognized a second tier of government comprising two entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Bosniaks and Croats) and the Republika Srpska (mostly Serbs), with each governing roughly half of the state's territory. These include not only communities of ethnic, regional, religious, and civic (the provincial and municipal governments) sorts, but also national communities, which often include or overlap with many of the other kinds. Official responses and the everyday experiences of Ukrainian refugees in Russia’. The government has continuously attempted to unify the country's various nationalities and to foster a South African identity. According to WikiLeaks, former Prime Minister Michel Rocard told the American ambassador to France, Craig Roberts Stapleton, in 2005, "France created itself by destroying five [ethnic] cultures: Breton, Occitan, Alsatian, Corsican, and Flemish. The discussion also raised the issues of direction and geography of migration flows (Sofya Gavrilova, Varshaver, Oparin), of what type of identity – religious or ethnic – prevailed in forming the flows of migration (Pain, Varshaver, Oparin, Eraliev), of what integration of migrants actually means (Pain, Varshaver), as well as the contradictions in the status of Ukrainian refugees in Russia (Pain, Kuznetsova) and the tendencies among migrants to return to their home countries (Oparin, Heusala, Eraliev). AP Human Geography: Historical Geography Assignment A state that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist Prof. Judith Pallot, Professor Emeritus at the University of Oxford and the Vice-President of BASEES, welcomed speakers and guests of the workshop and greeted them on behalf of Russian Readings and the University of Oxford. All Canadians are members of Canada as a civic or political community, a community of citizens, and this is a community that contains many other kinds within it. On 12 June 1990, the Congress declared Russia's sovereignty over its territory and proceeded to pass legislation that attempted to supersede Soviet laws. While both ethnicities are found in large areas of West Africa, it is only in Nigeria that they are classified as a single ethnic group for political expediency. Many organizations, such as the Soviet Army and police forces, remained in place in the early months of 1992, but were slowly phased out and either withdrawn from or absorbed by the newly independent states. In 1963, it was renamed again, becoming the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). Dr Natalia Taksami’s presentation, When the GULAG arrives in your Homeland: ethnic minorities of the Russian North-West. Prof. The same constitution, in its preamble, speaks of "peoples and nationalities of Spain" (pueblos y nacionalidades de España) and their respective cultures, traditions, languages, and institutions. There are over 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia. India has more than 2,000 ethnic groups and over 80,000 subcultures, and every major religion is represented, as are four major language families (Indo-European, Dravidian, Austroasiatic, and Sino-Tibetan) and a language isolate (Nihali). Another example is the Yoruba people, who live in areas of Nigeria, Benin and Togo, a region which is sometimes referred to as Yorubaland. Russia is a multinational state with over 190 ethnic groups designated as nationalities; the populations of these groups vary enormously, from millions (e.g., Russians, Tatars) to under 10,000 (e.g., Samis, Kets). [60], The Soviet Union was a state composed of the Soviet republics (of which there were 15 after 1956), with the capital in Moscow. The multinational state is a state containing national plurality in a particular form, where a national minority is only within that state forming a kind of internal state. [45] The United Kingdom thus became the union of the kingdoms of England, Ireland, and Scotland. The Soviet state is a multinational state."[61]. An ethnic group that is across multiple states but do not have territory or boundaries to claims as their own. The ethnicities are clustered in two principle locations: along borders with neighboring states, or in the center of Russia. The principal languages of Austria-Hungary were German, Hungarian, Polish, Czech, and Croatian, but there were also many minor languages, including Ukrainian, Romanian, Slovak, Serbian, Slovene, Rusyn, Italian, and Yiddish.[59]. Depending on the definition of "nation" (which touches on ethnicity, language, and political identity), a multinational state might also be multicultural or multilingual. Incentivisation implies a crucial initial role of the state in proposing national self-images and repertoires that link state and nation, while the dissemination and incorporation of these repertoires in the daily life depend upon non-state actors and are taken up by the society. ", Montenegro is a multiethnic state in which no ethnic group forms a majority. [49] This period of armed conflict erupted in 1966 between loyalist paramilitaries, seeking to maintain the country's position in the UK, and republican paramilitaries, seeking to unify Ireland as a 32-county independent republic. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev yielded, resigning as the president of the USSR and declaring the office extinct. The survey conducted in 2015-2016 demonstrated that although there were groups of migrants whose religiosity was not affected by their move to Russia or who became less religious after migration, a considerable part of Central Asian migrants he interviewed reported turning to religion on immigrating to Russia, as religion offered them respect, resources and refuge in a society that they found largely xenophobic and that marginalises Central Asian migrants and pushes them away from public spaces. 397–432. They are not religious in the strict sense of the word, but are, in fact, different and distinct social orders, and it is a dream that the Hindus and Muslims can ever evolve a common nationality, and this misconception of one Indian nation has troubles and will lead India to destruction if we fail to revise our notions in time. The indigenous Tharu people are also among the early settlers of the Terai region. The movement asserted that Urdu's official status gave an unfair advantage to Muhajirs (most of whom speak Urdu as their mother tongue) and Punjabis (whose mother tongue, Punjabi, is similar to Urdu, and many of whom were educated in Urdu under British rule). A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations. It was specifically stressed that in any case integration should not imply assimilation. The screening was introduced by one of the makers of the film, photographer and documentary filmmaker Olga Kravets, who spoke about her experience of working in Grozny and her intention to serve as liaison between the Russians and the Chechens divided after the war. Modern multinational or multiethnic states, Ilan Peleg, 'Classifying Multinational States' in, multilingual countries and regions of Europe, Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, unify Ireland as a 32-county independent republic, Ethnic and religious composition of Austria-Hungary, declared Russia's sovereignty over its territory, "Built to Last? The talk Indigenous People of the Russian North by Dr Stephan Dudeck started with a brief historical overview of the position and status of the local population of the North within Russia since colonisation of Siberia in the 17th century until the 1990s, when the status of the indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia, and the Russian Far East was brought into correlation with the population size (thus, the ethnic groups that numbered fewer than 50,000 people received the status of small-numbered peoples). Prior to the Acts of Union, the Kingdoms of England and Scotland both had minority populations of their own that could themselves be called nations. Other parts of the former Russian Empire, where the Soviet government was not approved, became independent states. Introducing the analytical framework for his research, Dr Goode suggested the term ‘banalisation’ to refer to the process of forging the banal ties between a state and a core nation. In respect of the political context of decentralisation in the Russian Federation in the 1990s, the analysis of the variables suggested a combination of accommodationist, integrationist, and assimilationist strategies that applied depending on a region. Out of these, Russian serves as the national language for the entire country, while the other 26 languages are only official in their respective regions called republics. 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